ZKProof Wiki of Concrete ZKP Applications

This webpage (ongoing work) intends to list many references about possible applications of ZKPs.

How to suggest an application: Each item should consist of a title, a succinct description (not more than 3 sentences) and adequate references (with external hyperlinks). You may submit your suggestions via the Google form, or send an email to the ZKProof editors: editors (at) zkproof (dot) org. Note that this is not intended as a list of papers about ZKP schemes, but rather of applications where ZKPs play a relevant role.

Legend of useful terms

  • ZKP: zero-knowledge proof
  • ZKPoK: zero-knowledge proof of knowledge

List of real-world computer-based ZKP applications

  1. Schnorr Signature: [1989] In a private/public-key setting, a ZKPoK of posession of a private-key (e.g., a discrete-log of a point on an elliptic-curve) corresponding to a public-key, constitutes a digital signature of a message that is bound to the proof (usually via hashing), since only someone knowledgeable of the private-key could have produced the proof in connection with said message.

List of real-world non-computerized ZKP applications

  1. Where’s Waldo: <explanation here> [2008, 2019, 2020]
  2. Sudoku: <explanation here>
  3. Possession of key of door inside a cave: <explanation here> [1989]
  4. Nuclear warhead verification: <explanation here> [2014]

List of other conceived ZKP applications

(Need to have been described elsewhere: paper, website, …)